In an ideal world, all these recommendations would be implemented. include, for example, required professional development time and other learning opportunities designed to foster better understanding of how to teach the redesigned science curriculum. Board on Testing and Assessment, Board on Science Education, Division of Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education. One of the main concerns research showed was that teachers … In other words, it is reminding the reader of the main argument. you start Ask yourself 034;Why am I research. Committee on Guidance on Implementing the Next Generation Science Standards. Step 11 Research Paper Quotes and Citations (APA) Create, evaluate, and revise policies and practices that encourage teachers to engage in professional learning related to science: District and school administrators and relevant leaders should work to establish dedicated professional development time during the salaried work week and work year for science teachers. Lacking good outcome measures, considerable resources will continue to be devoted to professional learning opportunities with a limited ability to gauge their effects. This heightened interest in “embedded professional learning” can take many forms, including professional learning communities; professional networks that reach across districts, the state, or the country; induction programs for early-career teachers; and coaching and mentoring for teachers wishing to improve their practice. While teachers in U.S. schools are required to participate regularly in professional development, mandated professional development tends to be generic, with little attention to systematically meeting the needs of science teachers. When developing a strategy for building capacity, school and district leaders should consider the tradeoffs inherent in such choices. Before offering our recommendations for future research, we reiterate the major gaps in the research literature. Such leaders can guide school- or district-based professional learning communities, identify useful resources, and provide feedback to teachers as they modify their instructional practices. Since teachers spend the majority of their professional time in classrooms and schools, it seems wise to capitalize on efforts to design. (2012). Do you want to take a quick tour of the OpenBook's features? Do you enjoy reading reports from the Academies online for free? Hallmarks of high-quality professional learning opportunities include focus on specific content that is aligned with district or school curriculum and assessment policies, as well as the proactive and professional engagement of teachers are hallmarks of high-quality professional learning opportunities. Conclusion: Educational research with its characteristics is influenced by four major paradigms. The reporting of educational research, which marks the final stage in the research process, is discussed in Chapter 11. (2013). The committee identified several areas of research that would inform the work of school leaders interested in supporting ongoing teacher learning. A committee of the National Research Council recently addressed that question with regard to K-12 education (National Research Council, 1999). Design and select learning opportunities for science teachers that are informed by the best available research: Teachers’ learning opportunities should be aligned with a system’s science standards, and should be grounded in an underlying theory of teacher learning and in research on the improvement of professional practice, and on how to meet the needs of the range of adult and student learners in a school or district. Moreover, schools and districts often lack systems that can provide a comprehensive view of teacher learning; identify specific teacher needs; or track investments—in time, money and resources—in science teachers’ professional learning. Thus, you do not want to introduce any new ideas, but rather recap everything throughout the rest of your piece of writing. Expertise in both science and pedagogy in science is an important component of building capacity in schools and districts. Many of us have experienced research writing projects as a way to “prove” what we already believe. While the goal of linking professional development to student learning outcomes through. This vision of science learning and teaching draws on a long tradition of reform in science education that has emphasized the need for all students to learn significant disciplinary core ideas, coupled with scientific and engineering practices that are part of inquiry. There are a handful of noteworthy exceptions to this pattern (e.g., Heller et al., 2012; Roth et al., 2011). This gap will challenge the collective capacity to assess any progress that may be made on meeting the challenges of the vision in the Framework and the NGSS. The committee found enormous variation in teacher learning opportunities, with no centralized way to determine general trends or the effectiveness of various programs or combinations of experiences. The authors of the National Research Council (2010) study of teacher preparation make a similar observation. A derivative is built on an analysis of the fundamental thesis and paragraphs. Research Recommendation 3: Design and Implement Research That Examines a Variety of Approaches to Supporting Science Teachers’ Learning, The committee urges a broad conceptualization of professional learning and thus research that examines how teachers learn from portfolios of learning opportunities, including both off-site and embedded professional development (e.g., study groups, professional learning communities, lesson study). It is also necessary for schools, districts, school networks, and states to develop practices and policies including teacher hiring and retention, teacher evaluation, curriculum and accountability guidance, and school staffing and school/district leadership that enable good science teaching. Council of State Science Supervisors, and Achieve, Inc. and are available online. Conclusion 11: Teacher leaders may be an important resource for building a system that can support ambitious science instruction. This new vision of science teaching and learning will require new learning on the part of all teachers in all of these domains. As simple as this message may seem, the proverbial devil is in the details. Research on how and under what conditions principals and leaders affect the quality of science learning in their schools has yet to be conducted. Because teaching and learning also have subject-specific aspects, these outcome measures need to sample broadly from the practices, disciplinary core ideas, and crosscutting concepts outlined in the new vision of science teaching and learning. Preparing Teachers: Building Evidence for Sound Policy. (2015). While an effective conclusion serves as … Linked to teachers’ classroom instruction and include analysis of instruction. For students and schools, the implementation of any science standards rests with teachers. Knowledge of the sciences one is assigned to teach, of how those sciences are related to one another and to other fields like engineering, and knowledge and skill in how best to teach students science also are essential to high-quality instruction as envisioned in the NGSS and Framework. Social networking and online environments hold promise for meeting the “just-in-time” learning needs of teachers, and for providing access to science expertise and science education expertise for teachers in schools and communities that lack rich resources in these domains. Sample conclusion for a research paper: The transformational power of classical music can be beneficial for an individual’s health, education and wellbeing. 23-24) So when asked, why us educational research the answer is clear. The field also needs research on the development of teacher educators, professional development leaders, and teacher leaders more generally. capacity to respond to all learners, disciplinary scientific knowledge, and pedagogical content knowledge—is essential. The conclusion of the research paper conclusion is the discussion. These tools may be particularly useful for supporting cross-school collaboration, providing teachers with flexible schedules for accessing resources, or enabling access to professional learning opportunities in rural areas where teachers may be isolated and it is difficult to convene in a central location. The beneficial effects on the students’ academic performance and behavior validate this decision, but its effect on student motivation is still unknown. It may seem easy, but your final mark depends a lot on how well you are able to express the main point of your research paper. The theory emerges from the conversations: the conversations do not test … To be maximally helpful, that research should attend to the contexts in which teachers learn and teach (see Figure 8-2). Teachers’ capacity to teach science well over time is intimately related to the environments in which they teach. Again, this situation is most pronounced in schools that serve high percentages of low-income students, and in which teacher turnover is especially high, leading to a less experienced and qualified workforce. Nor is it productive for the feedback teachers receive concerning their annual evaluations to run counter to messages about effective science instruction embodied in curriculum policies. While little research exists on the effects of these leaders on teacher learning more generally, the committee sees these new roles as a potentially powerful mechanism for improving science teacher quality collectively. Where is that expertise located (inside and outside of schools)? What social arrangements and resources will enable this work? When selecting learning opportunities for teachers, district and school leaders and teachers themselves should use the above criteria as a guide for identifying the most promising programs and learning experiences. This part predetermines the course of concluding section as it evaluates the way results reply to the main question and explain their relevance to the current knowledge in the proposed area. A teacher's capability to improve students' scientific understanding is heavily influenced by the school and district in which they work, the community in which the school is located, and the larger professional communities to which they belong. Contexts shape the work of teaching, and enhancing science instruction in the United States will require new policies as well as well-prepared teachers. T his chapter presents the committee’s conclusions and recommendations on five aspects of education programs at the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA): (1) the agency’s role in education, (2) its education goals and outcomes, (3) the composition and management of its education portfolio, (4) its education evaluation practices, and (5) the impact of its education efforts. A growing body of research documents the generative conditions established for teacher learning when schools foster collective responsibility for student learning and well-being. These trends are especially pronounced both for elementary school teachers and in schools that serve high percentages of low-income students, where teachers are often newer and less qualified. Research should document that learning so that efforts to reform science instruction can learn productively from that experimentation. Search our website or email us. As addressed in my analysis of recent research, the advantages of a later starting time for high school students significantly outweigh the … Central to this knowledge base are the knowledge and skill needed to teach all students, mastery of science and science practices, and understanding and skill in teaching science. National Research Council. Conclusions, Recommendations, and Directions for Research. Very few teachers have experience with the science and engineering practices described in the NGSS. Compelling research exists in many of these areas. The committee acknowledges that there are other domains of knowledge equally essential to effective science teaching, and chose to focus on these three as there is considerable science-specific research on how these domains enable high-quality. 3.8 Main conclusions 3.8.1 Relating epistemology, learning theories and teaching methods 184.108.40.206 Pragmatism trumps ideology in teaching. ...or use these buttons to go back to the previous chapter or skip to the next one. Roth, K., Garnier, H., Chen, C., Lemmens, M., Schwille, K., and Wickler, N.I.Z. Committee on a Conceptual Framework for New K-12 Science Education Standards, Board on Science Education. Administrators can direct resources (e.g., location of teachers, scheduling of classes, materials budget) toward science and teachers’ learning in science. All conclusion does answer the primary research question stated in the introduction. Here, we focus on how schools and school systems (such as districts or charter networks) can improve the learning opportunities for science teachers. Science Teachers' Learning provides guidance for schools and districts on how best to support teachers' learning and how to implement successful programs for professional development. Similarly, administrators could develop policies that more equitably distribute qualified and experienced science teachers across all students in school, districts, and school networks. This report makes actionable recommendations for science teachers' learning that take a broad view of what is known about science education, how and when teachers learn, and education policies that directly and indirectly shape what teachers are able to learn and teach. Thus, the use of this textbook may obviate the need to acquire a separate manual in a research course. Designed to achieve specific learning goals for teachers. They should encourage teachers to participate in science learning opportunities and structure time to allow for collaboration around science. The conduct of such research would require having much better documentation of the range of learning opportunities in which teachers participate and that were designed intentionally to build upon, extend, and enhance one another. Crucial to developing relevant expertise is developing the capacity of professional development leaders. Conclusions The pace at which science proceeds sometimes seems alarmingly slow, and impatience and hopes both run high when discussions turn to issues of learning and education. As school and district leaders identify professional learning opportunities for science teachers, they should work to develop a portfolio of opportunities that address teachers’ varied needs, in ways that are sensitive to the school or district context. Given differences in the learning needs of elementary, middle, and high school teachers, expenditures and time allocations should be broken down by grade level and by school and district level. These research traditions—which are designed as collaborations among various stakeholders (schools, teachers, policy makers, and researchers) and committed to responding quickly to data and shifting course when necessary—holds great promise for helping teachers and schools respond in a timely fashion to the mandate to raise standards and teach all children scientifically rich curricula. However, the evidence base related to learning opportunities for teachers in schools and classrooms is weak, especially with regard to science. In the field of learning, the past quarter century has been a period of major research advances. The capacity to teach all students science depends on teachers’ respect for and understanding of the range of experiences and knowledge that students from diverse backgrounds bring to school, and how to capitalize on those experiences in crafting rigorous instruction. It is the last paragraph, which contains summary of the whole work and predictions for the future. It will also be important to consider the larger contexts in which the plan will unfold and how existing policies and practices regarding personnel (hiring, retention, placement) and instructional guidance (curriculum and assessment) can enable or limit the plan. Conclusion 7: Science teachers’ professional learning occurs in a range of settings both within and outside of schools through a variety of structures (professional development programs, professional learning communities, coaching, and the like). ration experiences, have fewer. Register for a free account to start saving and receiving special member only perks. In addition, the vision emphasizes the need to integrate knowledge through crosscutting concepts. This is due in part to differences across states in both teacher certification and data collection; the problem is exacerbated by a lack of measures that could be used to do comparative work. Fundamental to most research aimed at linking science teacher learning to student science learning and engagement is the development of publicly credible, technically sound, and professionally responsible measures of relevant teacher and student outcomes. school. A conclusion is not merely a summary of the main topics covered or a re-statement of your research problem, but a synthesis of key points and, if applicable, where you recommend new areas for future research. These include roles as instructional coaches, mentors, and teacher leaders. Didn't find what you need? School and district leaders should not only make this portfolio of opportunities available to teachers; but also actively encourage, through their leadership and provision of resources, teachers’ engagement in these opportunities, and provide time during the school day for teachers to engage meaningfully in them. For example, teachers would be aided in achieving the new vision by research documenting how they can tap into students’ funds of knowledge when teaching a specific scientific practice or disciplinary idea. In particular, building school infrastructure that systematically develops the science and science teaching expertise necessary to engage all students meaningfully in the new vision embodied the Framework and NGSS can work proactively to ameliorate differences between schools that have ready access to such expertise and those that struggle to connect with it. No system is in place to collect data on the science teacher workforce, their qualifications, experience, and preparation. Such research could focus on online or hybrid professional development programs, face-to-face learning opportunities that take advantage of the use of technology in pursuit of ambitious instruction, the use of technology to teach to the new vision of science learning, or the support of online professional networks of teachers. National Research Council. So, such in depth knowledge is provided by following various research methods only. New incentives and investments to redesign/restructure science teachers’ learning opportunities in schools, districts, school networks, and partnerships are needed. School and district leaders will need to develop policies and practices that provide the necessary resources (fiscal, time, facilities, tools, incentives). Furthermore, school and district leaders should work with teams of teachers to build coherent programs of science teaching learning opportunities, tailored to individual teachers and the school as a whole. Despite a wealth of opportunities for science teacher learning offered in schools and districts and through cultural institutions and industry—ranging from summer institutes to research apprenticeships to curriculum development to Lesson Study—the majority of the nation’s science are impoverished in terms of targeted, coherent, aligned, and cumulative opportunities to enrich their understanding and practices in teaching all students challenging science. Below we offer some specific recommendations for practices and policies we view as necessary to enhance ongoing teacher learning. In the field of education, the research helps in coming to one conclusion. W. B. Yeats (1865 – 1939) Although developing countries contain over 80 per cent of the world’s population, they account for just half of its higher education students, and a far smaller proportion of those with access to high-quality higher education. In this chapter, we deﬁ ne research, discuss why it is important, advance ... conclusions from them, and to apply the ﬁ ndings to their own unique situations. Of particular benefit would be research assessing the effects of the interactions among various learning opportunities, as well as the particular contributions of different kinds of learning experiences to teacher knowledge and practice. Indeed, a plan for acting on recommendations toward the goal of enhancing science teacher learning to meet student learning goals is needed, and that plan might entail acting on a small number of recommendations, ordered in a way that capitalizes on current practice and policy and accelerates change. It is an academic assignment that may be in form of term paper, master or doctoral dissertations, which is based on original research and analysis of a certain topic. Such tradeoffs are inevitable, but investing in the individual and collective capacity of the workforce is essential to the improvement of science teaching in the United States. Differential effects of three professional development models on teacher knowledge and student achievement in elementary science. What is a conclusion of research paper? (2012). practice to student learning and engagement in terms of both individual teachers and the teacher workforce more generally. Committee on Developing Assessments of Science Proficiency in K-12. To achieve this new vision, teaching and learning in science classrooms will need to change, and so, too, will professional learning opportunities for teachers. Conclusion 2: The available evidence suggests that many science teachers have not had sufficiently rich experiences with the content relevant to the science courses they currently teach, let alone a substantially redesigned science curriculum. In addition to the above conclusions, all of which are drawn from chapter-specific analyses, the committee drew two additional conclusions based on the big picture emerging from these related, but separate analyses. When relevant, attending to the potential role of technology in enabling teacher learning would help schools and school districts take advantage of the capabilities of new technologies in enabling teacher learning. Focusing on this level of the system is essential, given the important roles played by principals and teacher leaders in connecting the rhetoric of visions such as that embodied in the Framework and NGSS to the realities of how teachers and students spend their time. Learning to teach teachers is related to but distinct from learning to teach. to summarize your argument for the reader and, perhaps, to call the reader to action if needed. That is, we see science teacher learning as an issue of building the capacity not only of individual teachers, but also of the science educator workforce more generally, particularly the capacity of science teachers in a school or district. The challenge of developing the expertise teachers need to implement the NGSS presents an opportunity to rethink professional learning for science teachers. Include opportunities for teachers to collect and analyze data on their students’ learning. These conditions might. 1. Without that kind of support, the local and essential work described in these recommendations will fall short. There is increasing attention to creating opportunities for teachers to take on leadership roles to both improve science instruction and strengthen the science teacher workforce. It has significant role in evaluating the human development of a country. That conclusion can achieve by observing the facts and figures in depth. Not a MyNAP member yet? At the same time, much remains to be learned. This issue is noted in the National Research Council report Monitoring Progress Toward Successful K-12 STEM Education (National Research Council, 2013) as well. Not only do these teacher leaders engage in advanced study of science and science teaching themselves, but they also take on roles that involve helping fellow teachers learn. In many ways, the message of this report is a simple one: all students deserve to understand and enjoy science, and helping teachers offer rich instruction will require building similarly rich learning environments for all science teachers. As instructional leaders, they need to understand the vision for science education in the Framework and NGSS and align policies and practices in the school to support this vision. Providing these kinds of learning opportunities in turn will require profound changes to current approaches to supporting teachers' learning across their careers, from their initial training to continuing professional development. Conclusion 5: The best available evidence based on science professional development programs suggests that the following features of such programs are most effective: The national interest in the power of professional development to enhance teacher quality has led to considerable investments in such programs and in research on what makes them effective. Many teachers pursue their own learning, taking summer professional development courses, volunteering to participate in curriculum development and/or review, working with preservice teachers, or taking on the role of professional developer or instructional coach. Other reports of the National Research Council (2014, 2015) include recommendations targeted to the state level that identify policies such as those related to assessment (National Research Council, 2014), high school graduation requirements (National Research Council, 2015), and teacher certification (National Research Council, 2015) that can help create supportive contexts for improving science education. Conclusion 12: Closing the gap between the new way of teaching science and current instruction in many schools will require attending to individual teachers’ learning needs, as well as to the larger system of practices and policies (such as allocation of resources, use of time, and provision of opportunities for collaboration) that shape how science is taught. Of course, working at that local level—while necessary—is not sufficient to change how science is taught across the United States and determining whether all children have access to high-quality science learning experiences. research remains somewhat elusive, a great deal has been learned from the careful work of researchers and professional development leaders who have iteratively built professional learning programs for teachers. Substantially less research exists on other, potentially equally important opportunities for science teacher learning, including professional learning communities, mentoring and coaching, online learning, teacher networks, and teacher evaluation. Learning opportunities for science teachers should have the following characteristics: Designers of learning opportunities for teachers including commercial providers, community organizations, institutions of higher education and districts and states, should develop learning opportunities for teachers that reflect the above criteria. Conclusion 8: Schools need to be structured to encourage and support ongoing learning for science teachers especially given the number of new teachers entering the profession. Conditions in schools and districts can create contexts that allow teachers to take better advantage of professional learning opportunities both within the workday and outside of school. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. Finally, the conclusion of the Discussion & Conclusion is where you try to summarize the results in a sentence or two and connect them with the purpose of the study. 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